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The VAR must become more fluent in internetworking and the network manager must understand the requirements of the physical security processes and applications. The key elements of video surveillance is the three Rs : resolution, retention, and reliability.
For an IP video surveillance deployment to be a success on the IP network, the reliability element must have careful attention by the network manager for the physical security manager to be successful. Resolution, one of the three Rs of video surveillance, directly influences the amount of bandwidth consumed by the video surveillance traffic. Image quality a function of the resolution and frame rate are functions of the amount of bandwidth required.
As image quality and frame rate increase, so does bandwidth requirements. Video surveillance solutions use a set of standard resolutions. These video standards are displayed in interlaced mode, which means that only half of the lines are refreshed in each cycle. The 4CIF and D1 resolutions are almost identical and sometimes the terms are used interchangeably.
Note IP camera vendors may use different video resolutions. The Cisco Video Surveillance Manager solution supports the format delivered by the camera. User expectations for resolution of video surveillance feeds are increasing partially due to the introduction and adoption of high-definition television HDTV for broadcast television. The HDTV formats are megapixel or higher. While image quality is influenced by the resolution configured on the camera, the quality of the lens, sharpness of focus, and lighting conditions also come into play. For example, harshly lighted areas may not offer a well-defined image, even if the resolution is very high.
Bright areas may be washed out and shadows may offer little detail. Cameras that offer wide dynamic range processing, an algorithm that samples the image several times with differing exposure settings and provides more detail to the very bright and dark areas, can offer a more detailed image. As a best practice, do not assume the camera resolution is everything in regards to image quality.
For a camera to operate in a day-night environment, the absence of light is zero lux , the night mode must be sensitive to the infrared spectrum. It is highly recommended to conduct tests or pilot installations before buying large quantities of any model of camera. Both types of codecs have advantages and disadvantages when implemented in a video surveillance system.
A codec is a device or program that performs encoding and decoding on a digital video stream. In IP networking, the term frame refers to a single unit of traffic across an Ethernet or other Layer-2 network. In this guide, frame primarily refers to one image within a video stream. A video frame can consist of multiple IP packets or Ethernet frames. A video stream is fundamentally a sequence of still images.
In a video stream with fewer images per second, or a lower frame rate, motion is normally perceived as choppy or broken. At higher frame rates up to 30 frames per second, the video motion appears smoother; however, 15 frames per second video may be adequate for viewing and recording purposes. These images only benefit from spatial compression within the frame; there is no temporal compression leveraging change between frames. For this reason, the level of compression reached cannot compare to codecs that use a predictive frame approach. Both formats consume a higher level of bandwidth for a comparable quality level than MPEG These formats are not typically used in IP video surveillance camera deployments.
MPEG-4 offers an excellent quality level relative to network bandwidth and storage requirements. MPEG-4 may continue to be used for standard definition cameras. This emerging new standard offers the potential for greater compression and higher quality than existing compression technologies. It is estimated that the bandwidth savings when using H.
The bandwidth savings associated with H. Each image stands alone without the use of any predictive compression between frames. MJPEG can easily be recorded at a reduced frame rate by only sampling a subset of a live stream.
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For example, storing every third frame of a frame per second video stream will result in a recorded archive at 10 frames per second. A x VGA resolution stream running at 30 frames per second can easily consume 5 to 10 Mbps. The bandwidth required is a function of the complexity of the image, in conjunction with tuning parameters that control the level of compression. Higher levels of compression reduce the bandwidth requirement but also reduce the quality of the decoded image. Since there is no predictive encoding between frames, the amount of motion or change in the image over time has no impact on bandwidth consumption.
The remaining video frames P-frames contain only information that has changed since the previous frame. Referencing of future frames requires frame reordering within the codec. The use of P-frames and B-frames within a video stream can drastically reduce the consumption of bandwidth compared to sending full image information in each frame. However, the resulting variance of the video frames' size contributes to the fluctuation in the bandwidth that a given stream uses.
This is the nature of most codecs because the amount of compression that can be achieved varies greatly with the nature of the video source. In order to support PTZ connectivity, the encoder should be able to connect to the camera through a serial interface. The encoder also connects through a serial cable to the analog camera.
When the OM viewer requests PTZ control through the joystick, the Media Server intercepts the request and communicates the request to the encoder. Once the request is received by the encoder, a serial communication takes place between the encoder and the analog camera. The aspect ratio is the relationship between the number of pixels in the horizontal and vertical image dimensions.
A 1. For HDTV formats, 1. In video surveillance deployments, the HDTV aspect ratio is more advantageous because the pixels at the top and bottom of the image are generally of less importance than having a wide field of view. In other words, the width of the image is more important than the height of the image. Capturing, encoding, and transporting bits that are of little value is a waste of bandwidth and disk space. In some instances, a single HDTV format video camera may be able to replace two standard definition cameras.
Camera placement can be characterized by either overview or detail view. The camera placement influences the resolution, frame rate and codec in use. A camera with an overview scene is monitoring a large area such as a parking lot or a traffic camera that is viewing vehicle congestion or the number of cars parked in the lot. Because details are not important, standard definition cameras using a wide-angle lens may be sufficient. The preferred codec may be MPEG-4 with a relatively low frame rate, frames per second.
Overview cameras may be supplemented with a detail view camera focused on a key area of interest or by a PTZ camera to provide real-time analysis of areas of interest at a higher resolution. The detail view placement is targeted at observing a specific area of interest at a higher resolution than the overview. Detail view is used for Point-of-sale transactions and face or license plate recognition. The detail view may have a PTZ capability, or the camera may be close to the subject area or have a long focal length lens.
Megapixel or HD cameras may be deployed to provide a sufficient number of pixels per-foot to accurately represent the subject. The positioning of a camera for detail view is a function of the number of pixels per-foot required for the application. Detection, recognition, and identification are visual processes associated with the amount of detail discernable to the human eye. We detect an object when it enters the field of view. Detection means we are aware that an object or person now exists where previously it was not seen.
Usually, this is due to movement of the object into the field of view of the surveillance camera. Detection simply means we are aware of the object, but have too little details to recognize or identify the object. As the object moves closer, we may recognize the object from characteristics previously encountered. For example, aircraft recognition is taught to military ground troops and airmen.
All aircraft have wings, engines, a fuselage, and tail assembly. They differ in size, shape, number, and position to each other. A particular model of aircraft can be recognized by recalling these characteristics from pictures, drawings or past detailed observations. Identification is the process where sufficient details are available to uniquely discern a person or object that is previously unknown.
Identification requires sufficient detail to accurately describe or recall the characteristics of the subject at a later time. For example, a mug shot booking photograph is taken following the arrest of a subject as a means of photographing recording sufficient details for later identification by a victim or witness. In video surveillance terms, sufficient detail is calibrated in pixels per foot of the area recorded by the camera.
The number of pixels per-foot to identify a subject may, at a minimum, range from 40 to over If the goal, therefore, is to identify a person entering through a standard 7-foot high doorway, the camera would need to be positioned so that the pixel per-foot requirement covering the door is met.
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The door would then need to be covered by pixels, if the goal is to have pixels per foot; 7 feet x pixels per foot. There is little light from the internal space with the natural light entering from the side and rear in this scene.
This image is from an analog camera that does not include a wide-dynamic range processing that would improve the image quality in this deployment. This illustrates the point that the number of pixels alone does not guarantee a high quality image. The number of cameras at any one building or facility may vary greatly depending on the coverage requirements and the nature of the business. While there are some small office deployment scenarios where only a single IP camera is needed, in most cases even a small office will require more cameras that one might initially expect.
There is a camera behind each teller station, a camera on the main entrance both inside and outside , and two cameras in the inner office area focused on the lobby and half doorway leading into the manager office areas. Additionally, the parking lot area, side, front, and rear of the branch as well as any exterior ATM would need be covered. This small location may easily require 10 to 16 IP cameras. Larger facilities require more cameras per location. It is not uncommon for a large retail store, home center, or warehouse retailer to need to IP cameras per location.
Public school deployments may need 80 to cameras per building. Tip One advantage of deploying high definition cameras over standard definition is fewer cameras may be required to cover an area of interest with a similar number of pixels per foot. The frame rate selected must meet the business requirements, but it does not need to be higher than what is required and should be considered carefully as frame rate influences both bandwidth and storage requirements. Motion pictures are captured at 24 frames per second fps.
These full motion rates are not needed for all video surveillance applications and in most applications less than 12 to 15 fps is sufficient. If the camera is placed where the subject moves toward the camera or vertically, the number of frames per second can be less than if the subject moves from side to side or horizontally within the field of view. The velocity of the subject is also a consideration. A cameras observing persons jogging or riding a bicycle may require higher frame rates than a person walking.
Analog cameras capture images using an interlaced scanning method, odd and even scan lines are done alternately. There is approximately 17 ms delay between the scanning of the odd and even lines making up the entire image. Because of this slight delay between scan passes, objects that are moving in the frame may appear blurred while stationary objects are sharp.
Most IP cameras use a progressive scan that is not subject to this problem. Everything being equal, a progressive scan image has less motion blurring than an interlace scanned image. IP cameras and encoders communicate with the Media Server in different ways, depending on the manufacturer. TCP provides guaranteed delivery of packets by requiring acknowledgement by the receiver.
Packets that are not acknowledged will be retransmitted. The retransmission of TCP can be beneficial for slightly congested network or networks with some level of inherent packet loss such as a wireless transport. Live video rendering at the receiving end may appear to stall or be choppy when packets are retransmitted, but with the use of MJPEG each image stands alone so the images that are displayed are typically of good quality.
UDP does not guarantee delivery and provides no facility for retransmission of lost packets. UDP transport does provide the option of IP multicast delivery, where a single stream may be received by multiple endpoints. In an IP multicast configuration, the internetworking devices handle replication of packets for multiple recipients. This reduces the processing load on the video encoder or IP camera and can also reduce bandwidth consumption on the network. TCP encapsulation can be beneficial for networks with inherent packet loss.
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TCP may be useful especially for fixed cameras and streams that are only being recorded and not typically viewed live. TCP transport induces a little more latency in the transport due to the required packet acknowledgements, so may not be a desirable configuration for use with a PTZ controlled camera. Applications that rely on unicast transmissions send a copy of each packet between one source address and one destination host address.
Unicast is simple to implement but hard to scale if the number of sessions is large. Since the same information has to be carried multiple times, the impact on network bandwidth requirements may be significant.
The communication between the Media Server and the viewers is always through IP unicast, making the Media Server responsible for sending a single stream to each viewer. Assuming a single 1Mbps video feed, the bandwidth requirements are noted throughout each network link. This chapter provides a high-level overview of different deployment models and highlights the typical requirements of campus and wide area networks.
Cisco's Enterprise Systems Engineering team offers detailed network designs that have been deployed by enterprise customers to provide enhanced availability and performance. An infrastructure that supports physical security applications requires several features from a traditional campus design. A hierarchical campus design approach has been widely tested, deployed, and documented. This section provides a high-level overview and highlights some of the design requirements that may apply to a video surveillance solution.
A highly available network is a network that provides connectivity at all times. As applications have become more critical, the network has become significantly more important to businesses. A network design should provide a level of redundancy where no points of failure exist in critical hardware components. This design can be achieved by deploying redundant hardware processors, line cards, and links and by allowing hardware to be swapped without interrupting the operation of devices. It provides connectivity to several environments such as IDFs, secondary buildings, data centers, and wide area sites.
Quality-of-service QoS is critical in a converged environment where voice, video, and data traverse the same network infrastructure. Video surveillance traffic is sensitive to packet loss, delay, and delay variation jitter in the network. Cisco switches and routers provide the QoS features that are required to protect critical network applications from these effects.
The goal of a campus design is to provide highly available and modular connectivity by separating buildings, floors, and servers into smaller groups.
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This multilayer approach combines Layer 2 switching based on MAC addresses and Layer 3 switching or routing based on IP address capabilities to achieve a robust, highly available campus network. This design helps reduce failure domains by providing appropriate redundancy and reducing possible loops or broadcast storms.
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With its modular approach, the hierarchical design has proven to be the most effective in a campus environment. The following are the primary layers of a hierarchical campus design:. The network's backbone. Security and QoS can be defined at this layer and propagated to the higher layers. In smaller environments, it is typical to collapse the distribution and core layers into a single layer.
A wide-area network WAN is used to connect different local-area networks LANs and typically covers a broad geographic area. WAN services are leased from service providers who provide different speeds and connectivity options. Deploying a video surveillance solution through a WAN environment presents challenges that are not typically seen in a LAN. The QVR Pro Client mobile app provides multiple display layouts and allows you to monitor multiple channels simultaneously.
Under single channel view, you can quickly switch between live and playback modes. Other features include camera view from the e-map and mobile notifications. QVR Pro provides detailed privilege settings, allowing for setting individual or group access privileges, providing suitability for environments of all sizes. In addition to the default roles including Administrator, Supervisor and Viewer , you can create new roles and give customized access to view specific layouts and channels, and also the e-map.
Whether your organization is based in one building or sprawled across a large campus, QVR Center greatly simplifies your surveillance tasks by allowing central management of multiple QVR Pros installed in your offices, classrooms, public spaces, and other areas. You can also centrally monitor live feeds, play back surveillance footages and receive event notifications from multiple QVR Pros to reduce response times to events.
QVR Guard is a high-availability failover management app to protect QVR Pro from system failure and to ensure uninterruptible surveillance recordings. QVR Guard features failover functionality that automatically takes over recording tasks from the QVR Pro server if an unexpected system fault or hardware failure occurs. QVR Pro includes eight camera channels by default. If you have any further questions about QNAP products or solutions, contact customer service through the Service Portal. Explore QVR Pro. Fully unleash the potential of fisheye cameras QVR Pro supports all of the standard fisheye cameras available on the market, and features Qdewarp technology that converts distorted parts of the original images into proportional ratios.
Easily monitor every corner Previously you needed multiple cameras to monitor every corner of an environment. Past: multiple cameras required Now: only a single fisheye camera needed. Multiple angles. Figures may vary by environment. Motion detection in budget-friendly cameras - including USB webcams! Instant Playback Monitor the live view of multiple channels and play recordings on a single interface.
Region of Interest The updated Region of Interest ROI feature supports multiple regional images from the same camera in live view and playback mode. Qdewarp Technology The innovative Qdewarp enables users to view standard fisheye camera recordings in proportional ratios and sizes without affecting original recordings. Multiple Notification Methods The event notification provides multiple ways of being informed of emerging events, including flashing red borders of channels, alert buzzers, and the motion icon on the e-map.
Performance Improvements With advanced video indexing technology, you can have up to ten-times faster playback speeds than the previous version and up to five-times faster exporting of surveillance recordings. If you have any further questions about QNAP products or solutions, contact customer service through the Service Portal. Explore QVR Pro. Fully unleash the potential of fisheye cameras QVR Pro supports all of the standard fisheye cameras available on the market, and features Qdewarp technology that converts distorted parts of the original images into proportional ratios.
Easily monitor every corner Previously you needed multiple cameras to monitor every corner of an environment. Past: multiple cameras required Now: only a single fisheye camera needed. Multiple angles. Figures may vary by environment. Motion detection in budget-friendly cameras - including USB webcams! Instant Playback Monitor the live view of multiple channels and play recordings on a single interface. Region of Interest The updated Region of Interest ROI feature supports multiple regional images from the same camera in live view and playback mode.
Qdewarp Technology The innovative Qdewarp enables users to view standard fisheye camera recordings in proportional ratios and sizes without affecting original recordings. Multiple Notification Methods The event notification provides multiple ways of being informed of emerging events, including flashing red borders of channels, alert buzzers, and the motion icon on the e-map.
Performance Improvements With advanced video indexing technology, you can have up to ten-times faster playback speeds than the previous version and up to five-times faster exporting of surveillance recordings. Faster Playback. Dedicated Storage QVR Pro has an independent recording space from QTS, ensuring dedicated storage space, high-quality recordings, and no performance interference. Powerful camera management and support QVR Pro supports thousands of camera models from over brands and a variety of image formats, allowing you to quickly build different surveillance solutions tailored to your environments while providing convenient camera management.
Cross-network Camera Search Easily add cameras from different networks, providing greater convenience for organizations with multi-network environments. Add and Manage Camera by Batch Save time when deploying large numbers of cameras by batch-adding cameras. Optimal Bandwidth Management Assign dedicated bandwidth to each camera to optimize the use of NAS system resources and ensure smoother recordings. Allocate System Resources for Event Recordings Assign separate streaming resources and allocate dedicated storage spaces for general recordings and event recordings.
Specific privilege settings QVR Pro provides detailed privilege settings, allowing for setting individual or group access privileges, providing suitability for environments of all sizes. QVR Center - Distributed deployment, centralized management Whether your organization is based in one building or sprawled across a large campus, QVR Center greatly simplifies your surveillance tasks by allowing central management of multiple QVR Pros installed in your offices, classrooms, public spaces, and other areas.
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